INVIGILATA LVCERNIS 2017 n. 39
Rivista: Invigilata Lucernis
F.to: 17,00 × 24,00 cm.
Atti del Convegno di Studi Nascere ieri, nascere oggi. Evoluzione storico-antropologica delle cure ostetrico-neonatali (Napoli, 5-6 novembre 2015)
Pasquale Martinelli – Marisa Squillante – Concetta Longobardi
Uniti nella diversità: l’incrocio dei saperi
IL RUOLO CENTRALE DELLA MATERNITÀ NEL CONTESTO SOCIALE
I miti del parto
Latin and Greek literature left us a report of some myths linked to birth. Here we observe myths linked to a difficult birth. Ovid guides us in the analysis of two myths connected to birth, both Adonis from Myrra and Hercules from Alcmena.
La gravidanza mirabile nel mondo classico
Birth represents an hard reality for Romans and Greeks; being aware of its risks, they create a complex rituality connected to this event. Therefore, they believe that a pregnancy in some way ‘different’ from normality and an unusual moment for giving birth are ominous signs announcing the coming of an exceptional person.
Il mondo della luna. Antiche società e diritto materno
The contribute proposes an insight into “Das Mutterecht”, the major work by the historian and anthropologist J. J. Bachofen on the ginecocracy in the ancient world. Bachofen aimed at analysing the phenomenon of the maternal right in order to highlight the manifestations of the supremacy of motherhood in almost every civilization of the ancient world.
Maria Vicario – Monica Napolitano – Giuseppina Tarantino
Il ruolo centrale della maternità nel contesto sociale. Evoluzione dei modelli di assistenza alla partoriente
Low-risk women can be offered midwife-led models of care, as it is associated with lower incidence of preterm birth, regional analgesia, instrumental vaginal birth, and fetal/neonatal death, and with shorter labor and a higher incidence of spontaneous vaginal birth. Therefore, women should be encouraged to ask for this option, if available. Training of traditional birth assistants in middle- and low-income countries is associated with a trend for less maternal mortality and significantly less perinatal mortality. All women should have continuous, one-on-one support throughout labor and birth (e.g. doula), as it is associated with less intrapartum analgesia, cesarean birth, operative birth, and dissatisfaction with the childbirth experiences, and more spontaneous vaginal birth.
The word “cesarean” is probably derived either from Lex Regia, later called Cesarea, or from the Latin caesare. Until the late 1800s, most cesarean deliveries were done after maternal death, for attempt at fetal salvage. In 1882, the era of modern cesarean delivery began when Saenger advocated closing all uterine incisions immediately after surgery. The lower uterine segment incision was introduced by Kronig in 1912 and popularized in the United States by DeLee in 1922. Randomized controlled trials involving any aspect of cesarean technique from 2005 to 2012 were evaluated in a systematic review. We identified 73 trials and 10 review. Recommendations with high levels of certainty favor pre-skin incision antibiotics, cephalad-caudad uterine extension, uterine exteriorization, spontaneous placental removal, single-layer uterine closure, and closure of the transverse skin incision with suture instead of staples. Additional, well-designed, large randomized trials are still warranted.
Impatto dell’evoluzione sulle patologie della gravidanza
Preeclampsia is a major obstetric condition. Humans are characterized by having large brains, bipedalism and helpless newborns. These aspects of our biology arose independently but together constrain pregnancy and childbirth leading to a particular mechanism of delivery, shoulder dystocia, cephalopelvic disproportion, difficult and arrested labors, and neonates admitted to neonatal intensive care unit. Preeclampsia probably arose only after the increase in human brain size and modern human mechanism of delivery. Therefore, preeclampsia also represents a risk associated with these distinctive aspects of human pregnancy.
INTERAZIONI MATERNO -FETALI E NUTRIZIONE NEONATALE
Allattamento al seno e principi di nutrizione pediatrica
Human milk is the result of a millennial natural selection aimed to satisfy the nutritional, biological and psychological needs of the newborn in the best possible way. It is not only specific for our species, but it also changes from one individual to another. Therefore, due to its extraordinary positive effects on both mother and infant, human milk represents the food of choice for the vast majority of neonates. In addition to the well-known positive effects for the healthy newborn, breastfeeding provides particular benefits to the neonates hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Care Units. The introduction of solid foods must take into account and respect children’s initiatives, supporting their interest in their parents’ meal. An active proposal of the foods which catch their attention, rather than an imposition of poorly tasty meals will make this transition easy and natural, and it will hopefully help adults to reconsider and improve their often unhealthy dietary habits.
Oblitteratis et abolitis nativae pietatis elementis. L’allattamento materno, le nutrici, i filosofi
Investigation into the Dialogus the oratoribus 28, 3-4 on children’s education in the context of the Aristotelian and Stoic debate on breastfeeding.
Sine eam totam integram matrem esse filii sui: una polemica di Gellio a favore dell’allattamento (Gell. 12, 1, 5-7)
This article presents a study on Gellius’ Noctes Atticae XII 1, 5-7. I aim to demonstrate that the lexical choices reveal Gellius’ fear for the new role of women in the society during the II cen. AD. Starting from the debate on healt benefits of maternal breastfeeding for newborn, I analize the moral sense of terms usually used in other semantic field.
La madre e il suo corpo: il valore etico degli umori e l’allattamento
This work aims at settling the sense of Favorinus’ speech in Gell. 12, 1. The philosopher employs ethical-philosophical and medical-scientific topics dating back to the previous literary tradition: a natural-mechanical motif, which is the complete fulfilment of duties by a woman in her role as a mother; an ethical-gentilitial motif, so that, by maternal milk, not only physical qualities but also moral ones are transferred to sons.
Contributes from Hippocrates, Aristotle and Plutarch may have furnished at different levels interpretations about the composition of breast milk. Some importance is given by the three to the father’s seed: it fertilizes the female blood which later turns (partially) into milk. The idea that a correct education of children has roots in the theory of the “proper” nursing is also found in Tacitus. It is also mentioned the work of Soranus from Ephesus.
In conclusion, what interests and motivates the entire dissertatio of Favorinus is that one classical principle of the transmissibility of the noble, uncontaminated genetic heritage. Accepting the idea that breast milk is a subsequent passage (with respect to the female blood) in reciving and transporting the father’s seed into the mother’s body, the latter would be reduced to a mere vehicle for humours and their ethical scope.
Favorinum dicentem audivi
Favorinus, a Greek scholar, is an important character in Aulus Gellius’ Noctes Atticae, where he is presented as a philosophus; nevertheless, he excelled at several fields of knowledge, as demonstrated by the sources he quotes. In particular Favorinus is the main character in Gell. 12, 1, where he is the author of a dissertatio about breastfeeding. The philosophus shows a polyhedric erudition and Gellius admires him. Gellius’ admiration towards his former teacher often surfaces in passages involving Favorinus, who stands as the perfect model of the 2nd century scholar.
Patria altrix civium: allattamento e identità romana
This paper aims to examine why the apprehensions about wet-nursing especially arose in the II A. D, by focusing on the analysis of Gell. 12, 1 and comparing it with other Latin literary texts. According to ancient theories, milk seems to affect the development of the baby on several levels and on long terms as well. Therefore, it is reasonable to argue that only the milk of the natural mother would guarantee a genetic and moral continuity within the family members and, above all, a ‘social heritage’, thus ensuring the birth of a civis Romanus. As a consequence, the condemnation of hiring a wet-nurse in Gellius and in authors who share his perspective might have been determined by the fear of losing the Roman identity, along with the intention of promoting prisci mores. The results of this survey might open new perspectives of research, considering the possibility of connecting these concerns with the politics and the ideology of Roman emperors in II A. D.
LA MATERNITÀ NEGATA, IL RISCHIO DI NASCERE E NON NASCERE
Le disuguaglianze di salute quali cofattori del rischio in gravidanza
Preterm birth is the most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. There are a lot of risk factors for preterm birth. African American women, as well as women with low socioeconomic status have a significantly increased risk of preterm birth as well as other obstetric complications, including preeclampsia, diabetes, hypertension, cesarean delivery and operative vaginal delivery. Women with low socioeconomic status have also an increased risk of stillbirth and neonatal death. Studies have shown that observed class differences in pregnancy outcome might be attributable to the characteristics and the lifestyle.
Il ruolo della madre nell’affidamento dei figli nell’esperienza giuridica romana
The aim of the present work is to describe the slow process of transformation of the familia romana, with particular reference to the problem of children custody in the case of separation or divorce of parents, and paying specific attention to the mother-child relationship.
At this regards the sources examined, both pre-Justinian and Justinian, attest the gradual transition from a rigidly patriarchal idea of family, based on all-embracing figure of the pater familias, to a more flexible and open conception of family, that acknowledges the fundamental role carried out by the mother, not only in the natural and procreative context, but also regarding the education of children.
When the separation of parents determines a breaking of intra-familiar equilibria, the judge can leave the children in mother’s care, with the consequent necessity of a legislator intervention aimed at guaranteeing the correct education and develop of children, preserving their needs and rights.
Francesco Raimondi – Giovanna Russo Spena
Quando l’inizio della vita è già in salita
Neonatology is a subspecialty of pediatrics that consists of the medical care of newborn in the first 28 days of life. It is a hospital based specialty and it is usually practiced in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The patients of neonatologists are preterm, babies with low birth weight, intrauterine growth restriction, birth defects, sepsis, pulmonary dysplasia or hypoplasia, cerebral hemorrhage.
Maurizio Guida – Anna Rita Palumbo
Il controllo delle nascite
Over 200 million women of reproductive age in developing countries who want to avoid pregnancy are not using a modern contraceptive method. Some family planning methods, such as condoms, help prevent the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Family planning / contraception reduces the need for abortion, especially unsafe abortion. Family planning reinforces people’s rights to determine the number and spacing of their children. By preventing unintended pregnancy, family planning /contraception prevents deaths of mothers and children. Promotion of family planning – and ensuring access to preferred contraceptive methods for women and couples – is essential to securing the well-being and autonomy of women.
… nec intra viscera tua conceptas spes liberorum elisisti. Pensieri (di uomini) sull’aborto a Roma, tra I sec. a.C. e II d.C.
In this contribution are analyzed and discussed literary testimonies (from the I century b.C. to the II century a.C.) describing the reasons why pregnancy was interrupted according to authors: lust for money, desire to keep attractiveness intact or to avoid the pains of labour and childbirth, need to hide illicit affairs, up to recurring to abortion as a form of protest to reclaim one’s rights. All these testimonies are ‘male’: the voice, the thoughts of women who chose to give up childbearing did not find their way to us.
Carlo Alviggi – Silvia Picarelli – Cira Buonfantino – Emanuela Spadarella – Pasquale De Rosa – Roberta Vallone – Giuseppe De Placido
Third-party reproduction or donor-assisted reproduction is any human reproduction in which DNA or gestation is provided by a third party or donor other than the one or two parents who will raise the resulting child. This goes beyond the traditional father–mother model, and the third party’s involvement is limited to the reproductive process and does not extend into the raising of the child. Third-party reproduction is used by couples unable to reproduce where they would otherwise be unable to do so, by same-sex couples, and by men and women without a partner. Where donor gametes are provided by a donor, the donor will be a biological parent of the resulting child, but in third party reproduction, he or she will not be the caring parent.
LA MATERNITÀ NELLE SCIENZE FIGURATE
Cinema e gravidanza
My contribution is the result of an in-depth study on the subject, culminating in the book “Fermi tutti: sono incinta – Cinema e gravidanza” published about two years ago. Driven by the curiosity of understanding how cinema had translated into the screen complex and delicate subjects such as pregnancy, childbirth, abortion, infertility and / or female frigidity and, ultimately, the gynecologist’s figure, I began to look at about two hundred films. This “urgency” was dictated by my skills as a film critic and journalist and my work for more than thirty years as a psychiatric consultant for the Obstetric and Gynecological Clinic of the Faculty of Medicine and Surgery of Naples Federico II. Not being able to list all the films analyzed, I would like to suggest to the reader the vision of some classics of American cinema (Un posto al sole, Femmina folle), of the controversial Marnie, of the incomparable Rosemary’s baby Nastro rosso a New York, of the frozen Affare di donne, of the sorrowful Family Life, of the touching Inseparabili, of the biting The Snapper, of the poetic Sesso, bugie e videotape, of the sentimental Il dottor T e le donne, of the non-conformist Juno, of the funny Pane amore e fantasia and Alfredo Alfredo, I would not miss the provocative La donna scimmia, the tasty Aprile and the recent Molto incinta, Baby mama, Piacere, sono un po’ incinta and Provetta d’amore. And if it is true that a volume is always a journey in search of something, this article I hope is not only a tribute to cinema, but above all a journey into the mysterious, strange and fascinating female world.
The work conducts a short reflection in order the current use of the expression “Paternity” about the Artwork, and the arguments to add, perhaps, something that can be called “Maternity”.
The use of the legal authorship instruments of an Artwork, in legal terms, mainly refers not so much to its conception and its birth, as to the authenticity and, more generally, to the imputation.
However, besides “Paternity,” we also deal with the state of conservation of the work, and therefore of its survival and usability over time, shifting the “fire” from the author to the work itself, which is extremely complex, also because the Art has become increasingly dematerialized, conceptual, not necessarily tangibly supported.
This is not just a matter of awareness of the physiological contribution of critics, or of the “art market” because it involves the users (possessors, visitors, audience), and need more and more an exhaustive documentation, and Information becomes an essential element for both conservation and respect for the authenticity of Artworks.
The complex operations that focus on birth, care, conservation, perpetration, eternity, can be put beside Paternity almost to draw some kind of Maternity in art, completing the overall responsibilities that surround it.