Research on Hierapolis in Phrygia and other cities in south-western Anatolia: archaeology, archaeometry, conservation

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ISBN: 978-88-7228-819-1
A cura di: Giuseppe Scardozzi, Tommaso Ismaelli
Edizione: 2016 21,00 × 30,00 cm.
Pagine: 908
Tomi: I
Immagini b/n e a colori


This volume presents the results of the Marmora Phrygiae Project, financed by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR – Ministero dell’Istruzione, dell’Università e della Ricerca) as part of the “Futuro in Ricerca” programme (FIRB 2012). In the period 2013-2016, following a multidisciplinary approach, the project sought to reconstruct the building stone procurement strategies adopted in the city of Hierapolis in Phrygia (Turkey), across a broad chronological time span from the Hellenistic epoch to the Byzantine period. Extensive knowledge of the territory surrounding the city and detailed research into its monuments provided the basis for a painstaking historical reconstruction. The volume describes the economic, social, technological and legal aspects of the use of marble and presents the results of the archaeometric investigations that were conducted in order to characterise the building stones, determine their provenance and assess the state of conservation of the monuments. In addition, the volume illustrates recent research conducted by teams of various nationalities into the marble quarrying districts and monumental complexes of the main settlements of south-western Asia Minor in the Imperial and Byzantine epochs.


Tommaso Ismaelli, Giuseppe Scardozzi, Introduction

Chapter I. The MARMORA Phrygiae Project

Giuseppe Scardozzi, The Marmora Phrygiae Project

Francesco D’Andria, The Marmora Phrygiae Project in the context of the research conducted in Asia Minor

Giacomo Di Giacomo, The on-line platform of the Marmora Phrygiae Project

Massimo Limoncelli, The contribution of Virtual Archaeology to the Marmora Phrygiae Project

Chapter II. Geological setting

Pier Matteo Barone, General setting of the geology and tectonics of the Denizli basin

Stefano Marabini, Geological and geomorphological setting of the area surrounding Hierapolis

Chapter III. Marble, alabaster and breccia quarries in the territory of Hierapolis and in the southern Denizli basin

Immacolata Ditaranto, Ancient marble quarries in the territory of Hierapolis

Mauro Brilli, Aida Maria Conte, Francesca Giustini, María Pilar Lapuente Mercadal, Davide Melica, Hernando Royo Plumed, Giovanni Quarta, Giuseppe Scardozzi, Archaeometric characterization of white marble from the ancient quarries in the territory of Hierapolis and in the southern sector of the Denizli basin, with an appendix on the Aphrodisian marble

Tamer Koralay, Archaeometric characterization of the recently discovered Yenişehir marble quarry in the Denizli region

Giuseppe Scardozzi, General considerations on the ancient marble quarries in the territory of Hierapolis and in the southern sector of the Denizli basin: between topography and archaeometry

Giuseppe Scardozzi, The alabaster quarries of Hierapolis

Emma Cantisani, Giueppe Scardozzi, The polychromatic breccia of Hierapolis: quarries, use in construction sites, alteration phenomena

Chapter IV. Building sites of Hierapolis during the Hellenistic age and the Imperial period

Giovanni Quarta, Mauro Brilli, Francesca Giustini, Davide Melica, María Pilar Lapuente Mercadal, Hernando Royo Plumed, Tommaso Ismaelli, Giuseppe Scardozzi, Provenance of the marbles used in the monuments of Hierapolis through an archaeometric approach: petrography, isotopes and cathodoluminescence          

Giuseppe Scardozzi, The marble sarcophagi of the necropolises of Hierapolis: new data on the provenance of the marbles according to archaeometric analyses

Sven Ahrens, Mauro Brilli, Maria Piera Caggia, Julia Cox, Yannis Maniatis, Giovanni Quarta, María Pilar Lapuente Mercadal, Giuseppe Scardozzi, Dimitris Tambakopoulos, Frances Van Keuren, Marble sarcophagi from the St Philip Church of Hierapolis and the North-East Necropolis: archaeometric characterization and marble provenance identification

Tommaso Ismaelli, Giuseppe Scardozzi, The North Agora: the building site and the provenance of marbles

Lorenzo Campagna, The architectural decoration of the Nymphaeum of the Tritons: design, construction and workforce

Tommaso Ismaelli, Giuseppe Scardozzi, Giorgio Sobrà, New data on the building site of the Theatre of Hierapolis           

Tommaso Ismaelli, The Sanctuary of Apollo:a stratified monumental context and its materials

Tommaso Ismaelli, Architecture and decoration in context: a cross analysis of the ancient building site in five steps. The case study of the Severan Temple A in the Sanctuary of Apollo

Francesco D’Andria, Tommaso Ismaelli, Pio Panarelli, Initial data on the supply of marble for the Ploutonion

Sara Bozza, The Ionic Portico of the Ploutonion in Hierapolis in Phrygia 

Tommaso Ismaelli, Marble Stoa and Gymnasium, two “twin” monuments in Hierapolis  

Dominik Maschek, The Marble Stoa at Hierapolis. Materials, labour force and building costs     

Ilaria Miccoli, The use of marbles in the Stoa of the Springs

Tommaso Ismaelli, Giuseppe Scardozzi, Considerations on the provenance of marble used in public and private monuments of the Imperial epoch: Civil Agora, Tomba Bella, Dodekatheon, North Theatre, Macellum, Bouleuterion

Giuseppe Scardozzi, Marble supply strategies in the building sites of Hierapolis   

Tommaso Ismaelli, Sara Bozza, Ancient construction sites in Hierapolis: new data on strategies, materials and techniques

Fabio Fortinguerra, Legal and administrative aspects of the management of the marble quarries in the Roman period

Chapter V. Building sites of Hierapolis during the Byzantine age: the case study of the St Philip Church

Maria Piera Caggia, The marbles of the Church of St. Philip in Hierapolis. Phases of construction and opus sectile flooring

Manuela De Giorgi, Materials, forms and models in the St Philip Church of Hierapolis: Byzantine architectural elements

Silvia Pedone, Byzantine sculpture in Hierapolis: engraving techniques and colour finishes

Emma Cantisani, Silvia Vettori, Maria Piera Caggia, Mortars and plasters of the St Philip Church

Emma Cantisani, Silvia Vettori, Susanna Bracci, Maria Piera Caggia, Elisabetta Neri, Fragments of painted plaster from the Church of St Philip in Hierapolis: a preliminary archaeological and archaeometric study

Chapter VI. Monuments and artefacts of Hierapolis: knowledge, decay and conservation

María Pilar Lapuente Mercadal, Hernando Royo Plumed, Cathodoluminescence for the characterization of ancient marble: problems and research perspective

Emma Cantisani, Susanna Bracci, Cristiano Riminesi, Silvia Vettori, Barbara Sacchi, Multidisciplinary analytical approach for the knowledge, conservation and monitoring of an archaeological site

Silvia Vettori, Cristiano Riminesi, Emma Cantisani, Susanna Bracci, Barbara Sacchi, Marble of Hierapolis: decay, conservation, monitoring of surfaces and environment      

Susanna Bracci, Marco Galli, The use of colouring on the statues of Hierapolis

Emma Cantisani, Silvia Vettori, Tommaso Ismaelli, Giuseppe Scardozzi, Imperial age mortars at Hierapolis: raw materials and technologies   

Oana Adriana Cuzman, Ana Sofia Leal, Sofie Schaffar, Silvia Vettori, Emma Cantisani, Notes on the biodiversity of Hierapolis monuments

Emma Cantisani, Silvia Vettori, Alessia Andreotti, Tommaso Ismaelli, Ancient restorations at Hierapolis: research on the artificial binders

Giacomo Di Giacomo, Silvia Vettori, Emma Cantisani, Cristiano Riminesi, Giuseppe Scardozzi, Documentation and analysis of the seismic fissures of the Stoa of the Springs at Hierapolis using thermographic imaging from a tethered aerostatic baloon

Giovanni Leucci, Tommaso Ismaelli, Giuseppe Scardozzi, Geophisical surveys at Hierapolis. New data on monuments and tectonic context

Pier Matteo Barone, Giuseppe Scardozzi, Optical high-resolution satellite imagery for the study of the ancient quarries of Hierapolis

Chapter VII. New investigations on the use of marbles in Asia Minor between the Hellenistic age and the Byzantine period

Patrizio Pensabene, Quarries in south-western Asia Minor: extraction and production

Lea Emilia Long, Fractures, flaws, and flakes: some comments on geological aspects of marble quality from Aphrodisias

Georg Plattner, The quarries of Ephesos and their use in the Ephesian architecture

Celal Şimşek, Marble in ancient architecture of Laodikeia on the Lykos: new evidence

Musa Kadıoğlu, Der Gebrauch von Marmorsorten in der Architektur von Nysa und Teos

Ursula Quatember, Natural Resources and the formation of a regional architectural identity in Roman Asia

Anne-Valerie Pont, Beyond local munificence: some remarks on Imperial and communal funding for building in the cities of Roman Asia, from Augustus to the Tetrarchicera

Tekla Schulz-Brize, The architecture of the so calledSerapeionin Ephesus

Mauro Matteini, The conservation of marble and limestone artefacts: new line of treatments based on mineral-inorganic principles

Agneta Freccero, White marbles at Labraunda: conservation and research

Grazia Semeraro, The sanctuary of Apollo in Hierapolis: building activities and ritual paths